Truly Standard-Essential Patents? A Semantics-Based Analysis

CEPR Discussion Paper No. DP14726

with Fabian Gaessler and Dietmar Harhoff

Abstract: Standard-essential patents (SEPs) have become a key element of technical coordination in standard-setting organizations. Yet, in many cases, it remains unclear whether a declared SEP is truly standard-essential. To date, there is no automated procedure that allows for a scalable and objective assessment of SEP status. This paper introduces a semantics-based method for approximating the standard essentiality of patents. We provide details on the procedure that generates the measure of standard essentiality and present the results of several validation exercises. In a first empirical application we illustrate the measure’s usefulness in estimating the share of true SEPs in firm patent portfolios for several mobile telecommunication standards. We find firm-level differences that are statistically significant and economically substantial. Furthermore, we observe a general decline in the average share of presumably true SEPs between successive standard generations.


Approximating the Standard-Essentiality of Patents – A Semantics-Based Analysis

Report for the European Patent Office Academic Research Programme

with Fabian Gaessler and Dietmar Harhoff

Abstract: The development of interoperability standards such as WiFi or 5G in information and communication technologies typically requires massive investments in R&D. It therefore generates large portfolios of related patents, part of which are standard-essential patents (SEPs) that are by definition infringed whenever the respective standard is implemented. This research project develops a novel method based on semantic data analysis to detect such standard essential patents. It provides valuable insights into the patent landscape around major ICT standard while enhancing transparency for the licensing of SEPs.


Detection of Protons and Carbon Ions with Depth using Al2O3:C,Mg-based Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detectors

Bachelor thesis at the German Cancer Research Centre

Abstract: In heavy ion therapy, precise knowledge of fluence, energy and particle type is necessary for an adequate treatment planning. The current status of the verification of a patient’s individual treatment plan relies mainly on dose measurements in a water phantom which means a limited validity with respect to the biological effect on tissue. A technology which can be used for accurate in-vivo verifications would improve the planning process considerably. Biocompatible fluorescent nuclear track detectors (FNTDs) were therefore investigated in this thesis as a precursor with respect to the detection of heavy charged particles (HCPs) with penetration depth. For that reason, irradiations of FNTDs with protons and carbon ions in different depths of PMMA were performed at the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT). In these experiments, the detectors have shown their suitability to detect HCPs with depth. Proton densities for penetration depths lower 11.5 cm in PMMA were determined with an average deviation of 3.3% and a maximum deviation of 4.5% from FLUKA simulated data. In a carbon ion beam, densities of carbon ions deviated systematically by 6.8% on average from treatment planning system data for depths lower 12.4 cm, most likely due to the detection of fragments such as boron ions. In further investigations, methods for the determination of angular distributions of protons were examined showing that stacks of images give the most accurate information on deflection angles of particles. Furthermore, incipient steps regarding the discrimination of different particle types in a carbon ion beam were done showing that carbon ions and lighter fragments such as protons and helium ions can be discriminated very easily using FNTDs.